Dark Patterns: Deceptive Design Techniques

Dark patterns are design techniques that manipulate or deceive users into taking actions they do not want or that are not beneficial to them. These practices can negatively impact user experience (UX), trust, satisfaction, and customer loyalty. In this article, we will examine some examples of dark patterns, their consequences, and how to avoid them.

Categories and Examples of Dark Patterns

There are many types of dark patterns, but they can be classified into four main categories:



Deception occurs when information is hidden or distorted to influence user decisions. This may include presenting false offers or testimonials, concealing additional costs or conditions, or using ambiguous language.

For instance, an e-commerce website displaying a countdown timer stating “Offer valid for the next 2 hours” for a specific product creates an illusion of scarcity and urgency, pressuring the user to make a purchase. However, every time the user visits the page, the timer resets, generating a false sense of time limitation. This deceptive tactic may lead users to make impulsive purchases they wouldn’t have otherwise considered.



Coercion refers to tactics that pressure or threaten users into taking unwanted actions. This can manifest in various forms, such as creating false urgencies or scarcities, limiting time or available options, or imposing penalties that are hard to cancel.

An example of coercion could be a mobile gaming app offering daily bonuses, but only if the user shares the app on their social networks. The app uses persuasive messages like “Share with your friends and get exclusive rewards today!” to pressure the user into actions they don’t desire, leveraging their desire for additional in-game benefits.



Interference occurs when users are hindered or prevented from taking actions beneficial to them. This can manifest through the use of pop-ups or intrusive ads, hiding or making it difficult to access preferred options, or requesting unnecessary information or permissions.

An example of interference might be a news website using pop-up ads that obstruct the reading of the main content. The buttons to close the ads are small and blend into the design, potentially causing users to accidentally click on the ads instead of closing them. This tactic interferes with the user’s browsing experience.



Exploitation involves tactics that capitalize on users’ vulnerabilities or emotions to influence their behavior. This may include using colors, shapes, or sounds that elicit instinctive reactions, appealing to fear, guilt, or curiosity, or creating false expectations or rewards.

An example of exploitation could be a social media app using bright colors and attractive sounds for notifications whenever a user receives a “like” or comment. This design aims to exploit the human need for validation and instant reward, fostering continuous and prolonged engagement with the app.

Impact of Dark Patterns

Dark patterns can have a significant and detrimental impact on various aspects of user interaction with a product or service. Here is an example of a Dark Pattern and its potential impacts:

Dark Pattern:

On an online subscription website, the user is offered a free 7-day trial for a premium service. However, in small font and a color tone blending with the background, it is mentioned that the subscription will automatically renew at high monthly rates after the trial period. Additionally, the cancellation process is complicated and hidden in dropdown menus.


User Experience (UX): The user, unaware of the automatic renewal conditions, may encounter unwanted charges on their credit card, leading to frustration and a negative experience.

Trust: The concealment of crucial information can erode the user’s trust in the brand. Feeling deceived can affect the perception of the brand’s honesty and transparency.

Customer Loyalty: Lack of clarity and a sense of manipulation may prompt the user to decide to leave the service after the free trial, thereby diminishing customer loyalty.

Brand Reputation: If users share their negative experiences on social media or online reviews, the brand’s reputation may suffer significant damage, affecting public perception.

Legal Consequences: Depending on the jurisdiction, the use of deceptive practices could result in legal actions or sanctions by regulatory bodies, impacting the company’s legal image.

Detecting and Avoiding Dark Patterns

To avoid falling into the traps of dark patterns, it is crucial to be informed and aware of these tactics. Here are some steps that can be followed:

Usability Testing

Regular usability testing is recommended to understand how users interact with designs. This helps identify any elements that may be confusing or deceptive.

For example, during usability testing of a new online shopping website, participants encounter a payment screen featuring a pre-checked subscription box for promotional emails. Observing how users interact and whether they notice the pre-checked box can reveal any deceptive elements in the design.

Design Reviews

Regular design reviews are important to ensure products are free of dark patterns.

For instance, a team of designers conducts a periodic review of the design of a financial services app to ensure there are no elements that could mislead users, such as confusing call-to-action buttons or hidden terms of service.

Continuous Education

Staying up-to-date with the latest research and trends in UX is essential to ensure designing in the most ethical and user-centered manner.

For example, a UX designer participates in conferences and workshops on ethical design and dark patterns. Staying informed about the latest research and trends in UX allows applying ethical and user-centered practices in daily work, avoiding unintentionally falling into deceptive tactics.

These steps help create products and services that respect the user experience and promote transparency, contributing to ethical and user-centered design.

The Role of Ethical Design in Dark Pattern Prevention

Ethical design plays a crucial role in preventing dark patterns. Here are some practices that can be adopted:

User-Centric Focus

It is essential to prioritize user needs and interests over short-term business goals. This involves designing products that are useful, usable, and satisfying for users.

For example, a social media service could reorganize its algorithm to display content based on users’ actual preferences rather than prioritizing ads or sponsored content. This ensures the design focuses on improving the user experience rather than maximizing short-term advertising revenue.


Being clear about how the product works and how user data will be used is important. This includes being honest about product limitations.

For example, a health and wellness app could clearly inform users how their data is collected, stored, and used to personalize recommendations. The app could also highlight areas where it cannot guarantee accurate results, ensuring transparency about product limitations.

Respect for the User

Treating users with respect involves avoiding tactics that exploit users’ vulnerabilities or emotions.

For example, a news website could avoid using sensationalist headlines or exaggerated information to increase clicks. Instead, it could present information accurately and objectively, respecting users’ intelligence and avoiding exploiting emotions to generate engagement.

These ethical design practices not only contribute to preventing dark patterns but also strengthen user trust, improve brand perception, and create more positive and respectful experiences for users.

Conclusion: The Importance of User-Centered Design

Dark patterns pose a threat to user experience and customer trust. However, with proper awareness and education, these practices can be combated, promoting ethical and user-centered design. At the end of the day, user-centered design not only benefits users but also leads to greater long-term engagement, satisfaction, and customer loyalty.

If you are struggling with Dark Patterns or simply want to ensure that your website or application is free of them, we are here to help. Contact us, and we will work with you to create a user experience that is ethical, user-centered, and beneficial for both your users and your business.

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